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### Regenerative Braking & Plugging Of DC Machines,Series Motors,Compound Motors

In regenerative braking as the name suggests the energy recovered from the rotating masses is fed back into the d.c. power source. Thus this type of braking improves the energy efficiency of the machine. The armature current can be made to reverse for a constant voltage operation by increase in speed/excitation only. Increase in speed does not result in braking and the increase in excitation is feasible only over a small range, which may be of the order of 10 to 15%. Hence the best method for obtaining the regenerative braking is to operate, the machine on a variable voltage supply. As the voltage is continuously pulled below the value of the induced emf the speed steadily comes down. The field current is held constant by means of separate excitation. The variable d.c. supply voltage can be obtained by Ward-Leonard arrangement, shown schematically in Fig. 51.

Braking torque can be obtained right up to zero speed. In modern times static Ward-Leonard scheme is used for getting the variable d.c. voltage. This has many advantages over its rotating machine counter part. Static sets compact, has higher efficiency, and requires lesser space and silent in operation; however it suffers from drawbacks like large ripple at low voltage levels, unidirectional power flow and low over load capacity. Bidirectional power   flow capacity is a must if regenerative braking is required. Series motors cannot be regeneratively   braked as the characteristics do not extend to the second quadrant.

Plugging

The third method for braking is by plugging. Fig. 52 shows the method of connection for the plugging of a shunt motor. Initially the machine is connected to the supply with the switch S in position number 1. If now the switch is moved to position 2, then a reverse voltage is applied across the armature. The induced armature voltage E and supply voltage V aid each other and large reverse current flows through the armature. This produces a large negative torque or braking torque. Hence plugging is also termed as reverse voltage braking. The machine instantly comes to rest. If the motor is not switched off at this instant the direction of rotation reverses and the motor starts rotating the reverse direction. This type of braking therefore has two modes viz.

1) plug to reverse and
2) plug to stop.

If we need the plugging only for bringing the speed to zero, then we have to open the switch S at zero speed. If nothing is done it is plug to reverse mode. Plugging is a convenient mode for quick reversal of direction of rotation in reversible drives. Just as in starting, during  Plugging also it is necessary to limit the current and thus the torque, to reduce the stress on the mechanical system and the commutator. This is done by adding additional resistance in series with the armature during plugging.

Series motors

In the case of series motors plugging cannot be employed as the field current too gets reversed when reverse voltage is applied across the machine. This keeps the direction of the torque produced unchanged. This fact is used with advantage, in operating a d.c. series motor on d.c. or a.c. supply. Series motors thus qualify to be called as `Universal motors'.

Compound motors

Plugging of compound motors proceeds on similar lines as the shunt motors. However some precautions have to be observed due to the presence of series field winding. A Cumulatively compounded motor becomes differentially compounded on plugging. The mmf due to the series field can 'over power' the shunt field forcing the flux to low values or even reverse the net field. This decreases the braking torque, and increases the duration of the large braking current. To avoid this it may be advisable to deactivate the series field at the time of braking by short circuiting the same. In such cases the braking proceeds just as in a shunt motor. If plugging is done to operate the motoring the negative direction of rotation as well, then the series field has to be reversed and connected for getting the proper mmf. Unlike dynamic braking and regenerative braking where the motor is made to work as a generator during braking period, plugging makes the motor work on reverse motoring mode.