INTEL 8085 MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEM



The microprocessor is a semiconductor device (Integrated Circuit) manufactured by the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technique. It includes the ALU, register arrays and control circuit on a single chip. To perform a function or useful task we have to form a system by using microprocessor as a CPU and interfacing memory, input and output devices to it. A system designed using a microprocessor as its CPU is called a microcomputer.
The Microprocessor based system (single board microcomputer) consists of microprocessor as CPU, semiconductor memories like EPROM and RAM, input device, output device and interfacing devices. The memories, input device, output device and interfacing devices are called peripherals. The popular input devices are keyboard and floppy disk and the output devices are printer, LED/LCD displays, CRT monitor, etc.





In the ┬ÁP based system, the microprocessor is the master and all other peripherals are slaves. The master controls all the peripherals and initiates all operations.

The work done by the processor can be classified into the following three groups.

1.    Work done internal to the processor
2.    Work done external to the processor
3.    Operations initiated by the slaves or peripherals.

The work done internal to the processors are addition, subtraction, logical operations, data transfer operations, etc. The work done external to the processor are reading/writing the memory and reading/writing the J/O devices or the peripherals. If the peripheral requires the attention of the master then it can interrupt the master and initiate an operation.

The microprocessor is the master, which controls all the activities of the system. To perform a specific job or task, the microprocessor has to execute a program stored in memory. The program consists of a set of instructions. It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory. The instruction is executed one by one internal to the processor and based on the result it takes appropriate action.

BUSES:

The buses are group of lines that carries data, address or control signals.

•The CPU Bus has multiplexed lines, i.e., same line is used to carry different signals.

The CPU interface is provided to demultiplex the multiplexed lines, to generate chip select signals and additional control signals.

•The system bus has separate lines for each signal.


All the slaves in the system are connected to the same system bus. At any time instant communication takes place between the master and one of the slaves. All the slaves have tri-state logic and hence normally remain in high impedance state. Only when the slave is selected it comes to the normal logic.


PERIPHERAL DEVICES:

•    The EPROM memory is used to store permanent programs and data.
•    The RAM memory is used to store temporary programs and data.
•    The input device is used to enter the program, data and to operate the system.
•    The output device is used for examining the results.

Since the speed of I/O devices does not match with the speed of microprocessor, an interface device is provided between system bus and I/O devices. Generally I/O devices are slow devices.


Advantages of Microprocessor based system


1. Computational/processing speed is high.
2. Intelligence has been brought to systems.
3. Automation of industrial processes and office administration.
4. Since the devices are programmable, there is flexibility to alter the system by changing the software alone.
5. Less number of components, compact in size and cost less. Also it is more reliable.
6. Operation and maintenance are easier.
 
Disadvantages of Microprocessor based System

1. It has limitations on the size of data.
2. The applications are limited by the physical address space.
3. The analog signals cannot be processed directly and digitizing the analog signals introduces errors.
4. The speed of execution is slow and so real time applications are not possible.
5. Most of the microprocessors does not support floating point operations.





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PROJECTS 8086 PIN CONFIGURATION 80X86 PROCESSORS TRANSDUCERS 8086 – ARCHITECTURE Hall-Effect Transducers INTEL 8085 OPTICAL MATERIALS BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS INTEL 8255 Optoelectronic Devices Thermistors thevenin's theorem MAXIMUM MODE CONFIGURATION OF 8086 SYSTEM ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMME OF 80X86 PROCESSORS POWER PLANT ENGINEERING PRIME MOVERS 8279 with 8085 MINIMUM MODE CONFIGURATION OF 8086 SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES MODERN ENGINEERING MATERIALS 8085 Processor- Q and A-1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF FLUID MECHANICS OSCILLATORS 8085 Processor- Q and A-2 Features of 8086 PUMPS AND TURBINES 8031/8051 MICROCONTROLLER Chemfet Transducers DIODES FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS METHOD OF STATEMENTS 8279 with 8086 HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING OVERVOLATGES AND INSULATION COORDINATION Thermocouples 8251A to 8086 ARCHITECTURE OF 8031/8051 Angle-Beam Transducers DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS IN 8051/8031 INSTRUCTION SET FOR 8051/8031 INTEL 8279 KEYBOARD AND DISPLAY INTERFACES USING 8279 LOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR 8051/8031 Photonic Transducers TECHNOLOGICAL TIPS THREE POINT STARTER 8257 with 8085 ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTIONS IN 8051/8031 LIGHTNING PHENOMENA Photoelectric Detectors Physical Strain Gage Transducers 8259 PROCESSOR APPLICATIONS OF HALL EFFECT BRANCHING INSTRUCTIONS FOR 8051/8031 CPU OF 8031/8051 Capacitive Transducers DECODER Electromagnetic Transducer Hall voltage INTEL 8051 MICROCONTROLLER INTEL 8251A Insulation Resistance Test PINS AND SIGNALS OF 8031/8051 Physical Transducers Resistive Transducer STARTERS Thermocouple Vacuum Gages USART-INTEL 8251A APPLICATIONs OF 8085 MICROPROCESSOR CAPACITANCE Data Transfer Instructions In 8086 Processors EARTH FAULT RELAY ELECTRIC MOTORS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN IN GASES FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET) INTEL 8257 IONIZATION AND DECAY PROCESSES Inductive Transducers Microprocessor and Microcontroller OVER CURRENT RELAY OVER CURRENT RELAY TESTING METHODS PhotoConductive Detectors PhotoVoltaic Detectors Registers Of 8051/8031 Microcontroller Testing Methods ADC INTERFACE AMPLIFIERS APPLICATIONS OF 8259 EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT TESTING METHODS EARTH FAULT RELAY TESTING METHODS Electricity Ferrodynamic Wattmeter Fiber-Optic Transducers IC TESTER IC TESTER part-2 INTERRUPTS Intravascular imaging transducer LIGHTNING ARRESTERS MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Mechanical imaging transducers Mesh Current-2 Millman's Theorem NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Norton's Polarity Test Potentiometric transducers Ratio Test SERIAL DATA COMMUNICATION SFR OF 8051/8031 SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS Speed Control System 8085 Stepper Motor Control System Winding Resistance Test 20 MVA 6-digits 6-digits 7-segment LEDs 7-segment A-to-D A/D ADC ADVANTAGES OF CORONA ALTERNATOR BY POTIER & ASA METHOD ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER TESTING AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER TESTING METHODS Analog Devices A–D BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE BUS BAR BUS BAR TESTING Basic measuring circuits Bernoulli's Equation Bit Manipulation Instruction Buchholz relay test CORONA POWER LOSS CURRENT TRANSFORMER CURRENT TRANSFORMER TESTING Contact resistance test Current to voltage converter DAC INTERFACE DESCRIBE MULTIPLY-EXCITED Digital Storage Oscilloscope Display Driver Circuit E PROMER ELPLUS NT-111 EPROM AND STATIC RAM EXCITED MAGNETIC FIELD Electrical Machines II- Exp NO.1 Energy Meters FACTORS AFFECTING CORONA FLIP FLOPS Fluid Dynamics and Bernoulli's Equation Fluorescence Chemical Transducers Foil Strain Gages HALL EFFECT HIGH VOLTAGE ENGG HV test HYSTERESIS MOTOR Hall co-efficient Hall voltage and Hall Co-efficient High Voltage Insulator Coating Hot-wire anemometer How to Read a Capacitor? 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